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Substance Abuse

Enrolled on:

CE1007 | Contact Hours: 2

COURSE OBJECTIVES

The purpose of this course is to provide health care professionals with functional knowledge regarding both prescription and non prescription drug abuse, along with its prevention, risk factors and treatment. Upon completion of this course, the health care professional will be able to:

1. Medically define substance abuse for prescription and non prescription drugs.
2. Understand epidemiology and pathophysiology of substance abuse.
3. Identify the most commonly abused prescription and non prescription drugs and their congruent signs and symptoms.
4. Be able to describe prevention measures, intervention tools and treatment therapies for substance abuse.

RELEASE DATE

05/16/2022

EXPIRATION DATE

05/16/2024

AUTHOR

Sarah Hilgenberg, LPN

CRITERIA FOR SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION

All learners must complete the entire activity and complete the evaluation to receive contact hours.

APPROVAL STATEMENT (ACCREDITATION INFORMATION)

This nursing continuing professional development activity was approved by the Ohio Nurses Association, an accredited approver by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation. (OBN-001-91).

In addition to states that accept American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) courses, CE Leaders is an approved provider by the Florida Board of Nursing, and a registered provider with the Arkansas State Board of Nursing, District of Columbia Board of Nursing, Georgia Board of Nursing, Kentucky Board of Nursing, New Mexico Board of Nursing, South Carolina Board of Nursing and West Virginia Board of Registered Nurses (Provider # 50-33450).

RELEVANT FINANCIAL RELATIONSHIP

No one with the ability to control content of this activity has a relevant financial relationship with an ineligible company.

INTRODUCTION

A major health crisis occurring in the Unites States today is the misuse and abuse of drugs. This list of drugs includes alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids and various prescription medications. In 2020, over 40 million people age 12 and older suffered from a substance abuse disorder, nearly double from the previous year at 20.8 million people according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (1). The United States has a record breaking number of prescription medications dispensed annually compared to other countries, which unfortunately makes ease of mismanagement and abuse readily available in many homes. Every year, hundreds of thousands of pounds of illegal drugs are seized by law enforement nationwide. All aspects of substance abuse and the necessary positive influence by health care providers will be discussed in this activity. The need for health care professionals to intervene in substance abuse disorders is desparately needed. Substance abuse leads to various other negative consequences including severe mental illness, crime, familial distress, homelessness and death. According to the National Centers for Drug Abuse Statistics, accidental drug overdose is a leading cause of death among persons under the age of 45 (2). Provisional data from the CDC reports that in the Unites States in 2021, there were over 100,000 drug overdose deaths, which is a 28.5% increase from the previous year (3). The need for health care professionals to acknowledge early signs of substance abuse and provide the correct recovery avenues for individuals has never been more imperative to the health of the American public.

RESOURCES

1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Helpline: 1-800-662-HELP (4357) or TTY: 1-800-487-4889

2. Harm Reduction Ohio: https://www.harmreductionohio.org/contact/

3. Mental Health and Substance Abuse for Veterans: 1-844-USA-GOV1 or https://www.usa.gov/mental-health-substance-abuse

4. National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare Helpline: 1-800-422-4453

5. Alcoholics Anonymous: http://aa.org

6. National Suicide Prevention Hotline: 1-800-273-8255

REFERENCES

1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Website. https://www.samhsa.gov/newsroom/press-announcements/202110260320. Published October 26, 2021. Last accessed January 22, 2022.

2. Drug Abuse Statistics. National Center for Drug Abuse Statistics. Website. https://drugabusestatistics.org/. Published 2021. Last accessed January 22, 2022.

3. Drug Overdose Deaths in the U.S. Top 100,000 Annually. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Website. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/nchs_press_releases/2021/20211117.htm. Published November 17, 2021. Last accessed January 22, 2022.

4. DSM-5 Criteria for Addiction Simplified. Addiction Policy Forum. Website https://www.addictionpolicy.org/post/dsm-5-facts-and-figures. Published August 17, 2020. Updated August 20, 2020. Last accessed January 22, 2022.

5. Hasin DS, O'Brien CP, Auriacombe M, et al. DSM-5 Criteria for Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations and Rationale. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(8):834–851. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12060782. Published August 1, 2013. Last accessed January 22, 2022.

6. Genetics and Epigenetics of Addiction DrugFacts. National Institute on Drug Abuse. https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/genetics-epigenetics-addiction. Published August, 2019. Last accessed January 22, 2022.

7. Liu, M., Jiang, Y., Wedow, R. et al. Association studies of up to 1.2 million individuals yield new insights into the genetic etiology of tobacco and alcohol use. Nat Genet 51, 237–244 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-018-0307-5. Published January 14, 2019. Last accessed January 22, 2022.

8. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. et al. Harmful Effects of Nicotine. Website. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4363846/. Published January, 2015. Updated March, 2015. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

9. Alcohol Use Disorder. Mayo Clinic. Website. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/alcohol-use-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20369243. Published July 11, 2018. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

10. Understanding Alcohol Use Disorder. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Website. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/brochures-and-fact-sheets/understanding-alcohol-use-disorder. Published 2020. Updated April, 2021. Last accessed January 25, 2020.

11. Marijuana and Public Health. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Website. https://www.cdc.gov/marijuana/data-statistics.htm#:~:text=Marijuana%20is%20the%20most%20commonly,at%20least%20once%20in%202019.&text=Recent%20research%20estimated%20that%20approximately,marijuana%20have%20marijuana%20use%20disorder. Updated June 8, 2021. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

12. Marijuana Symptoms and Warning Signs. Addiction Center. Website. https://www.addictioncenter.com/drugs/marijuana/symptoms-signs/. Published February 11, 2019. Updated November 11, 2021. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

13. Marijuana Drug Facts. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana. Published December, 2019. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

14. Drug Use: What is Marijuana? Caron. Website. https://www.caron.org/addiction-101/drug-use/what-is-marijuana?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIg6n5KbG9QIVhyRgCh3kzQGxEAAYAyAAEgKRafD_BwE. Last accessed January 25, 2022

15. Opiate Addiction Effects, Signs and Symptoms. Website. https://www.mtregis.com/opiates/effects-signs-symptoms/. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

16. Fentanyl. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Website. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/opioids/fentanyl.html. Updated February 16, 2021. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

17. Opioid Addiction. Johns Hopkins Medicine. Website. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/opioids/treating-opioid-addiction.html. Last accessed January 26, 2022.

18. Evidence Based Strategies for Preventing Opioid Overdose: What’s Working in the United States. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Website. https://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/pdf/pubs/2018-evidence-based-strategies.pdf. Published 2018. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

19. Kyle M. Kampman, The Treatment of Cocaine Use Disorder, Science Advances. Website. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/sciadv.aax1532. Published October 16, 2019. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

20. Signs of Cocaine Use and Abuse. American Addiction Centers. Website. https://americanaddictioncenters.org/cocaine-treatment/signs. Published December 17, 2021. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

21. Benzodiazepine Addiction: Symptoms and Signs of Dependence. American Addiction Centers. Website. https://americanaddictioncenters.org/benzodiazepine/symptoms-and-signs. Published December 20, 2021. Last accessed January 25, 2022.

22. Substance Abuse Disorders. Nurselabs. Website. https://nurseslabs.com/substance-abuse-disorders/. Updated February 11, 2021. Last accessed January 26, 2022.

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